Thursday, February 24, 2011

Beginning HTML, XHTML, CSS, and JavaScript


Chapter 1: Structuring Documents for the Web 1
A Web of Structured Documents 1
Introducing HTML and XHTML 2
Tags and Elements 4
Separating Heads from Bodies 5
Attributes Tell Us About Elements 7
Learning from Others by Viewing Their Source Code 8
Elements for Marking Up Text 9
Basic Text Formatting 10
White Space and Flow 10
Creating Headings Using <hn> Elements 11
The align Attribute (Deprecated) 13
Creating Paragraphs Using the <p> Element 15
Creating Line Breaks Using the <br /> Element 15
Creating Preformatted Text Using the <pre> Element 16
Presentational Elements 19
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The <b>Element 20
The <i>Element 20
The <u>Element (Deprecated) 21
The <s> and <strike> Elements (Deprecated) 21
The <tt> Element 21
The <sup> Element 22
The <sub> Element 22
The <big> Element 22
The <small> Element 22
The <hr /> Element 23
Phrase Elements 23
The <em> Element Adds Emphasis 24
The <strong> Element Adds Strong Emphasis 24
The <address> Element Is for Addresses 24
The <abbr> Element Is for Abbreviations 25
The <acronym> Element Is for Acronym Use 25
The <dfn> Element Is for Special Terms 26
The <blockquote> Element Is for Quoting Text 26
Using the cite Attribute with the <blockquote> Element 27
The <q> Element Is for Short Quotations 27
The <cite> Element Is for Citations 27
The <code> Element Is for Code 28
The <kbd> Element Is for Text Typed on a Keyboard 29
The <var> Element Is for Programming Variables 30
The <samp> Element Is for a Program Output 30
Lists 30
Using the <ul> Element to Create Unordered Lists 31
Ordered Lists 31
Definition Lists 33
Nesting Lists 34
Editing Text 38
Using Character Entities for Special Characters 39
Comments 40
The <font> Element (Deprecated) 40
Understanding Block and Inline Elements 41
Grouping Elements with <div> and <span> 42
The XML Declaration 43
Document Type Declaration 43
Core Elements and Attributes 45
The <html> Element 45
The <head> Element 45
The <title> Element 46
The <body> Element 47
Attribute Groups 47
Core Attributes 47
Internationalization 49
UI Events 51
Summary 51
Exercises 52
Chapter 2: Links and Navigation 55
Basic Links 55
Linking to Other Web Pages 56
Linking to E-mail Addresses 58
Understanding Directories and Directory Structures 61
Understanding URLs 62
Absolute and Relative URLs 63
The <base> Element 66
Creating Links with the <a> Element 66
Creating a Source Anchor with the href Attribute 66
Creating a Destination Anchor Using the name and id Attributes
(Linking to a Specific Part of a Page) 67
The <a> Element’s Other Attributes 70
Advanced E-mail Links 76
Summary 78
Exercises 78
Chapter 3: Images, Audio, and Video 79
Adding Images Using the <img> Element 79
The src Attribute 80
The alt Attribute 80
The height and width Attributes 81
The align Attribute (Deprecated) 83
The border Attribute (Deprecated) 84
The hspace and vspace Attributes (Deprecated) 84
The ismap and usemap Attributes 85
The longdesc Attribute 85
The name Attribute (Deprecated) 86
Using Images as Links 88
Image Maps 89
Client-Side Image Maps 90
Server-Side Image Maps 94
Choosing the Right Image Format 95
GIF Images 97
Animated GIFs 100
JPEG Images 101
PNG Images 102
Keeping File Sizes Small 102
Adding Flash, Video, and Audio to Your Web Pages 104
Adding Flash Movies to Your Site 106
Adding Videos to Your Site 113
Adding Videos Using Flash Video 115
Video Size 117
Adding Audio to Your Site 118
Automatically Playing Audio and Video When a Page Loads 123
A Closer Look at the <object> and <param> Elements 123
The <param> Element 126
Summary 127
Exercises 128
Select Boxes 187
File Select Boxes 193
Hidden Controls 194
Object Controls 195
Creating Labels for Controls and the <label> Element 198
Structuring Your Forms with <fieldset> and <legend> Elements 200
Focus 202
Tabbing Order 202
Access Keys 204
Disabled and Read-Only Controls 205
Sending Form Data to the Server 207
HT TP get 207
HT TP post 208
Summary 211
Exercises 212
Chapter 6: Frames 215
Introducing the Frameset 216
When To Use Frames 218
The <frameset> Element 219
The cols Attribute 220
The rows Attribute 222
Browser-Specific Extensions to the <frameset> Element 222
The <frame> Element 225
The src Attribute 225
The name Attribute 226
The frameborder Attribute 226
The marginwidth and marginheight Attributes 226
The noresize Attribute 227
The scrolling Attribute 227
The longdesc Attribute 227
The <noframes> Element 228
Creating Links Between Frames 228
Setting a Default Target Frame Using the <base> Element 230
Nested Framesets 231
Inline or Floating Frames with <iframe> 234
The <iframe> Element 235
Summary 240
Exercises 240
Chapter 7: Cascading Style Sheets 243
Introducing CSS 244
A Basic Example 245
Inheritance 249
Where You Can Add CSS Rules 250
The <link> Element 250
The <style> Element 252
Advantages of External CSS Style Sheets 253
CSS Properties 254
Controlling Text 255
The font-family Property 257
The font-size Property 259
The font-weight Property 261
The font-style Property 262
The font-variant Property 262
The font-stretch Property 263
The font-size-adjust Property 263
Text Formatting 264
The color Property 264
The text-align Property 265
The vertical-align Property 266
The text-decoration Property 267
The text-indent Property 268
The text-shadow Property 269
The text-transform Property 269
The letter-spacing Property 270
The word-spacing Property 271
The white-space Property 271
The direction Property 272
Text Pseudo-Classes 273
The first-letter Pseudo-Class 273
The first-line Pseudo-Class 274
Selectors 276
Universal Selector 277
The Type Selector 277
The Class Selector 277
The ID Selector 278
The Child Selector 278
The Descendant Selector 278
The Adjacent Sibling Selector 279
The General Sibling Selector 279
Using Child and Sibling Selectors To Reduce Dependence on Classes in Markup 279
Attribute Selectors 281
Lengths 283
Relative Units 283
Absolute Units 284
Percentages 284
Introducing the Box Model 285
An Example Illustrating the Box Model 286
The Border Properties 288
The padding Property 291
The margin Property 292
Dimensions of a Box 294
Internet Explorer Box Model Bug 299
Summary 304
Exercises 304
Chapter 8: More Cascading Style Sheets 307
Links 308
Backgrounds 309
The background-color Property 310
The background-image Property 310
The background-repeat Property 312
The background-position Property (for Fixing Position of Backgrounds) 314
The background-attachment Property (for Watermarks) 316
The background Property (the Shorthand) 316
Lists 317
The list-style-type Property 317
The list-style-position Property 318
The list-style-image Property 319
The list-style Property (the Shorthand) 320
Tables 320
Table-Specific Properties 322
The border-collapse Property 323
The border-spacing Property 324
The empty-cells Property 324
The caption-side Property 326
The table-layout Property 327
Outlines 328
The outline-width Property 329
The outline-style Property 329
The outline-color Property 329
The outline Property (the Shorthand) 329
The :focus and :active Pseudo-Classes 330
Generated Content 331
The :before and :after Pseudo-Elements 331
The content Property 332
Miscellaneous Properties 335
The cursor Property 335
The display Property 337
The visibility Property 337
Additional Rules 338
The @import Rule: Modularized Style Sheets 338
The !important Rule 339
The @charset Rule 340
Positioning and Layout with CSS 340
Normal Flow 341
The position Property 342
Box Offset Properties 342
Relative Positioning 343
Absolute Positioning 344
Fixed Positioning 345
The z-index Property 346
Floating Using the float Property 348
The clear Property 349
Summary 355
Exercises 355
Chapter 9: Page Layout 357
Understanding the Site’s Audience 358
Who Will Visit the Site? 358
Why Have They Visited Your Site? 359
What Does a Visitor Need to Achieve a Goal? 361
How Often Will People Want to Visit? 362
Things You Want the Site to Do 362
Prioritizing Information 362
Grouping and Categorization 363
Creating a Site Map 364
Identifying Key Elements for Each Page 365
Page Size (and Screen Resolution) 365
Understanding Screen Sizes 366
Fixed-Width vs. Liquid Designs 367
Designing Pages 373
Composition and Grids 374
Sketching the Placement of Elements 380
How Visitors Look at a Page 387
Coding Your Design 391
The IE Box Model Bug 391
Working with a Grid 392
Multi-Column Layouts 394
Developing for Mobile Devices 408
Understanding the Medium and How It Is Used 408
How to Approach Mobile Development 410
Building a Mobile Site 413
Summary 419
Exercises 419
Chapter 10: Design Issues 421
Typography 422
Line Length — A Measure 422
Font Sizes 424
Choosing Fonts 426
Line Height — Leading 427
CSS Resets 429
Line Height — Baseline Grids 430
Space Between Letters — Tracking 434
White Space 434
Chunking 436
Contrast 437
Navigation 440
Menus 440
Links 449
Site Search Features 452
Tables 454
Padding 454
Headings 455
Shading Alternate Rows 456
Forms 456
Before Designing the Form 457
Designing the Form 459
Layout of Forms 464
Summary 479
Exercises 479
Chapter 11: Learning JavaScript 481
What Is Programming About? 482
How to Add a Script to Your Pages 484
Comments in JavaScript 486
The <noscript> Element 487
The Document Object Model 488
Accessing Values Using Dot Notation 490
The Document Object 491
The Forms Collection 493
Form Elements 495
Images Collection 498
Different Types of Objects 500
Starting to Program with JavaScript 501
Variables 502
Assigning a Value to a Variable 502
Lifetime of a Variable 503
Operators 503
Arithmetic Operators 504
Assignment Operators 504
Comparison Operators 505
Logical or Boolean Operators 506
String Operator (Using + with Strings) 506
Functions 506
How to Define a Function 507
How To Call a Function 507
The Return Statement 508
Conditional Statements 508
if Statements 508
if . . . else Statements 509
switch Statement 510
Looping 511
while 512
do . . . while 512
for 513
Infinite Loops and the break Statement 514
Events 514
Built-in Objects 516
String 516
Date 520
Math 523
Array 525
Window 526
Writing JavaScript 528
A Word About Data Types 529
Keywords 530
Summary 530
Exercises 531
Chapter 12: Working with JavaScript 533
Practical Tips for Writing Scripts 533
Has Someone Already Written This Script? 533
Reusable Functions 534
Using External JavaScript Files 534
Place Scripts in a Scripts Folder 534
Form Validation 535
When to Validate 535
What You Can Check For 535
How to Check a Form 536
Checking Text Fields 536
Select Box Options 551
Radio Buttons 553
Checkboxes 554
Form Enhancements 556
Focus on First Form Item 556
Auto-Tabbing Between Fields 557
Disabling a Text Input 558
Case Conversion 560
Trimming Spaces from Beginning and End of Fields 560
Selecting All the Content of a Text Area 562
Check and Uncheck All Checkboxes 562
JavaScript Libraries 570
Animated Effects Using Scriptaculous 571
Drag-and-Drop Sortable Lists Using Scriptaculous 574
Creating a Lightbox 575
Creating a Modal Window 577
Sortable Tables with MochiKit 578
Creating Calendars with YUI 581
Auto-Completing Text Inputs with YUI 582
Summary 584
Exercises 585
Chapter 13: Putting Your Site on the Web 587
Meta Tags 588
name and content Attributes 588
http-equiv and content 591
The scheme Attribute 593
Testing Your Site 593
Validating HTML, XHTML, and CSS 594
Link Checking 596
Checking Color Depths 598
Accessibility Checkers 598
Checking in Different Versions of Browsers 599
Pilot Testing 599
Proofreading 601
Taking the Leap to Live 601
Getting a Domain Name 601
Hosting 602
Key Considerations for Choosing a Host 602
Putting Your Site on a Server Using FTP 604
The Importance of Directory Structure and Relative URLs 606
Telling the World about Your Site 607
Always Mention Your URL 608
Content Is King 608
Forums, Communities, and Social Networks 608
Check for Trade Sites and Directories 608
Reciprocal Links 609
Look at Your Competition 609
Make It Easy for People to Link to You 609
Pay-per-click Advertising 610
Display Advertising 612
Create an E-mail Newsletter 612
Understanding Your Visitors 613
Ten Things to Check in Google Analytics 614
Measuring Everything 615
What Next? 616
Tools 617
Introducing Other Technologies 620
Summary 626
Chapter 14: Checklists 627
Search Engine Optimization Checklist 627
On-Page Techniques 628
Identifying Keywords and Phrases 628
Off-Page Techniques 631
Accessibility Checklist 631
Setting Up Your Document 631
Structural and Semantic Markup 632
Links and Navigation 632
Images and Multimedia 632
Color 633
Tables 633
Forms 634
Style Sheets 634
JavaScript 634
Skip Links 634
Differences Between HTML and XHTML 635
All Tag Names and Attribute Names Must Be Written in Lowercase 635
All Attributes Must Have a Value Given in Double Quotation Marks 636
Elements Must Nest; There Must Be No Overlapping 636
Empty Elements Must Contain a Closing Slash 636
Scripts Should Live in a CDATA Section 636
HTML 5 637
Language Compatibility in HTML 5 637
Stylistic Markup Will Be Removed 637
New Semantic Elements 638
New Values for the <input> Element’s type Attribute 639
New Multimedia Elements 639
New APIs 640
Appendix A: Answers to Exercises 641
Appendix B: XHTML Element Reference 677
Appendix C: CSS Properties 713
Appendix D: Color Names and Values 741


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